Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model made by International Organization for Standardization has gotten an International norm and fills in as a guide for networking . It likewise portrays and normalizes the correspondence elements of a media transmission or figuring framework regardless of its hidden inward structure and innovation and the OSI gives a standard to various PC frameworks to have the option to speak with one another.
Why OSI Model ?
Few of the basic functions and work, why OSI model is needed.
- Helps in reducing network complexity
- Standardizes interfaces
- Facilitates modular engineering
- Ensures interoperable technology
- Accelerates evolution
- Makes teaching and learning easy
- OSI model is still very useful for troubleshooting network problems.
History of OSI Model
The OSI model was first characterized in crude structure in Washington, DC in February 1978 by Hubert Zimmermann of France and the refined standard was distributed by the ISO in 1984. In 1983, these two records were converged to frame a standard called The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection. The standard is normally alluded to as Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model, OSI Reference Model, or basically OSI model. It was distributed in 1984 by both the ISO, as standard ISO 7498, and the renamed CCITT (presently called the Telecommunications Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union or ITU-T) as standard X.200.
OSI had two significant parts, a theoretical model of systems administration, called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model, and a lot of explicit conventions. The OSI reference model was a meaningful step forward in the instructing of system ideas. It advanced the possibility of a predictable model of convention layers, characterizing interoperability between arrange gadgets and software.
How OSI model works ?
There are 7 layers in OSI model which helps trace how data flow happens (sent and received) between nodes which known as Network device over a network. This model breaks down data transmission over a series of seven layers, each of which is responsible for performing specific tasks in sending and receiving data in a network. Each layer of the OSI model handles a specific job and communicates with the layers above and below itself.
Now let us discuss briefly about the 7 Layers of OSI model.
Layer 1 :- Physical Layer
The physical layer is liable for the transmission and gathering of unstructured data between a device and a physical transmission medium. It changes over the digital bits into electrical, radio, or optical signs. This layer incorporates the physical gear associated with the information move, for example, the cables and switches. This is likewise the layer where the information gets changed over into a bit stream, which is a string of 1s and 0s.
Layer 2 :- Data link layer
The data link layer is quite similar to the network layer, but only difference is the data link layer facilitates data transfer between two devices on the SAME network. The data link layer takes packets from the network layer and breaks them into tiny pieces known as frames. Like the network layer, the data link layer is also responsible for flow control and error control in intra-network communication (The transport layer only does flow control and error control for inter-network communications).
Layer 3 :- Network Layer
The network layer is answerable for encouraging information move between two different networks. In the event If the two devices communicating are on the same network, then the network layer is unnecessary. The network layer separates fragments from the transport layer into littler units, called packets, on the sender’s device, and reassembling these packets on the receiving device. The network layer additionally finds the best physical way for the information to arrive at its goal; this is known as routing.
Layer 4 :- Transport Layer
This layer is responsible for end-to-end communication between the two hosts(devices). This includes taking data from the session layer and breaking it up into chunks known as segments before sending it to layer 3. The transport layer on the receiving device is responsible for reassembling the segments into data the session layer can consume.The transport layer is also responsible for flow control and error control.
Layer 5 :- Session Layer
This is the layer responsible for opening and closing communication between the two devices. The time between when the communication is opened and closed is known as the session. The session layer ensures that the session stays open long enough to transfer all the data being exchanged, and then promptly closes the session in order to avoid wasting resources. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. The session layer ensures that the session stays open long enough to transfer all the data being exchanged, and then promptly closes the session in order to avoid wasting resources.
Layer 6 :- Presentation Layer
This layer is fundamentally answerable for planning information with the goal that it very well may be utilized by the application layer; as such, layer 6 makes the information respectable for applications to expend. The presentation layer is answerable for interpretation, encryption, and compression of data.The presentation layer can include compression functions.The Presentation Layer negotiates the Transfer Syntax.
Layer 7 :- Application Layer
This layer directly helps the internet users to communicate through web browser, or other applications, which means both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This is the main layer that legitimately associates with information from the client. Programming applications like internet browsers and email customers depend on the application layer to start correspondences. In any case, it ought to be clarified that customer programming applications are not part of the application layer; rather the application layer is answerable for the conventions and information control that the product depends on to introduce significant information to the client. Application layer conventions incorporate HTTP just as SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is one of the conventions that empowers email correspondences).
Advantage and Disadvantages of OSI Model
>It gives a theoretical outline of systems administration forms. At the end of the day, it separates the perplexing universe of systems administration into a solitary model with the goal that we can all the more effectively comprehend what’s going on in a system or between networks.
>The best bit of leeway of the OSI model is its effortlessness. Every one of the seven OSI layers is answerable for a particular capacity (apparently with certain special cases), and each layer offers a support to the layer above it.
> It permits different kinds of system equipment and programming to communicate.It forestalls changes in one OSI layer from influencing different layers to quicken development.
> It is simply a hypothetical model that doesn’t think about the accessibility of fitting innovation. This confines its functional execution. The guidelines of OSI model are hypothetical and don’t offer sufficient answers for viable system usage. TCP/IP model was a lot of favored by the scholarly community. It was accepted that OSI was a result of the European people group and the US government, who were attempting to constrain a mediocre model to analysts and developers. Consequently, there was significant obstruction in embracing it.
> The meeting layer is utilized for meeting the board. Introduction layer manages client collaboration. In spite of the fact that they are valuable, not as much as different layers in the OSI model.
> There is likewise association among the layers. These layers can’t work in equal. They must be in stand by to get information from its predecessor.